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Gallbladder Disorders

list of gallbladder disorder





⇔ Gallbladder

⇔ Bile

⇔ Bile Passage

⇔ Movement of bile

⇔ Gallbladder Disorders




The gall bladder is an organ located below the liver and right side of the abdomen. It’s a part of the human biliary system.


Structure: A thin-walled, hollow structure and pear-shaped sack


Length: 7-10 cm   &    Width: 5 cm







                                        BILE USED FOR BREAKING DOWN FAT DURING DIGESTION



Human Biliary System: The biliary system functions in the production and transportation of bile by using organs and ducts (bile ducts, gallbladder, and associated structures).


Biliary tract: The biliary tract make sure how the liver, gall bladder, and bile ducts work in alignment to produce, store and secrete bile. Also known as the biliary tree or biliary system.





The main function of the gall bladder is to store and concentrate bile which is produced by the liver, used for breaking down fat from food during the digestion process.


The gallbladder serves as a storehouse for bile when it’s not used for digestion. The lining absorbent in gallbladder concentrates stored bile.


Bile Color – Yellow brownish or olive green liquid


Composition of bile – Bile salts, electrolytes, cholesterol, phospholipids, bile pigment, water, and certain fats.


Bile storage in the gallbladder – ~30 to 80 milliliters


The function of bile – Break down fat during digestion and clears wastes from the liver to small intestines.


Production of bile in the liver – ~About 800 to 1000 milliliters of bile every day



Bile composition:



Water – 97 %


Bile Salts – 0.70 %


Bilirubin – 0.20 %


Fats – 0.51 %   (Include cholesterol, fatty acids, and lecithin)


Inorganic salts – 200mEq/l


⇒ Bilirubin is made when red blood cells are broken down in the liver. Bilirubin is what makes urine yellow and stool brown.


⇒ Bile salts aids in breaking down larger fat into smaller ones, which makes digestive enzymes from the pancreas to process and break down easily.


⇒ The bile salts also help cells in the intestine to absorb that small droplet of fat.


⇒ Cholesterol used for the absorption of fat from the contents of the intestine.


Bile Passage:


The liver cells secrete the bile into small canals that lead to the common bile duct.


From there, a smaller duct branches off and leads to the gallbladder. The common bile duct ends at the duodenum, beginning part of the small intestine.


What happens during the meal:


⇒ The bile produced by the liver flows directly into the small intestine during a meal.


⇒ Between meals, when there is no fat to needs to be digested, most of the bile flows into the gallbladder instead, where it is concentrated and stored.


⇒ While consuming fatty foods, the gallbladder contracts, and releases bile through the bile duct and it moves into the small intestine for further digestion.


Role of cholecystokinin hormone: When food enters the small intestine, a hormone called cholecystokinin is released, signaling the gallbladder to contract and secrete bile into the small intestine through the common bile duct.


⇒ Main function of bile to break up fats during the digestion process and it also drains waste products from the liver into the duodenum part of the small intestine.


⇒ Before meal gallbladder may be full of bile; while after a meal, it’s empty and flat.



Gallbladder Disorders:





⇒ Also known as GALLSTONES.


⇒ When bile substances crystallize in the gallbladder it forms gallstones. Sometimes it causes pain, nausea, or inflammation.


⇒ It is treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy.





⇒ Gallstones occur usually in the gallbladder, but in this disorder, gall stones are present in the common bile duct.




⇒ It is treated by ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography).





⇒ It’s an inflammation of gall bladder condition in which stones in gallbladder blocks the cystic duct.


⇒ CYSTIC DUCT: A tube leading from gallbladder to small intestine through which bile passes into the common bile duct.


⇒ When gall stones block the cystic duct, bile accumulates more in the gall bladder and leads to inflammation (Either reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful).

⇒ Cholecystitis was maybe both acute and chronic.


Acute Cholecystitis condition:


It arises due to sudden inflammation. It would lead to severe pain in the upper right of the abdomen which will last for long hours. Other symptoms include vomiting, chill, fever, and nausea.


Chronic Cholecystitis condition:


Chronic lasts for a long time but with low intense inflammation. It may occur due to previous acute conditions. It causes repeated attacks with pain when gall stone blocks the cystic duct.


⇒ At certain times, cholecystitis can occur due to other bile duct problems, tumors, serious health complications.


⇒ Gallbladder inflammation required surgery when pain continues.



Gallbladder cancer:



⇒ Gallbladder cancer is a rare occurrence and begins in the gallbladder.


⇒ It’s difficult to detect this cancer conditions at the beginning since it doesn’t have specific symptoms. due to no specific symptoms for it.


⇒ But sometimes it shows symptoms resemble gallstones condition like nausea, fever, jaundice, abdominal pain and lose weight.


⇒ This can be cured at an early stage and gets more complicated at later stages.



Gallstone pancreatitis:



⇒ It’s a condition in which gallstones from gallbladder slip into the common bile duct and get stuck in the sphincter of Oddi (located at the opening of the bile duct into the small intestine). This blocks the pancreatic duct.


⇒ Due to which bile from the liver and pancreas accumulate largely and finally leads to severe pain and inflammation and cause pancreatitis.



Gallbladder polyps:



A gallbladder polyp is a small, abnormal growth of tissue from the lining of the inner wall of the gallbladder.



This condition occurs due to the following reason:


⇒ Accumulation of cholesterol in the inner lining of the gallbladder


⇒ Inflammation condition


⇒ Small tumor, it can be either cancerous or not.


Abscess of the gallbladder:


⇒ This causes inflammation of gallbladder with pus. It’s a condition in which gallstones blocks the entire gallbladder and allowing pus to accumulate.


PUS ~ Combination of white blood cells, dead tissue, and bacteria.


Biliary dyskinesia:


⇒ It is a motility disorder that affects both the gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi.


Sphincter of Oddi –> Located at the opening of the bile duct into the small intestine




⇒ When motility disorder found in the gallbladder, it is referred to as gallbladder dyskinesia.


⇒ This disorder has no gallstones condition but with severe upper abdominal pain.

Tumors of gallbladder and bile ducts:


⇒ Most gallbladder and bile duct cancers are adenocarcinomas. These are cancer cells which line the glands and ducts.


⇒ It is formed from the mucous glands which line the duct. This could develop in any location of the bile ducts.


⇒ Gallbladder and bile duct cancers are uncommon and rare conditions. This causes inflammation and scarring of the bile duct, colon, or liver.


⇒ People with gallstones may lightly have a risk of developing gallbladder and bile duct cancer.


Congenital defects of gall bladder:


⇒ This congenital defect depends on various congenital anomalies, such as its location, number, size, or form.



⇒ These malformations are very rare and would lead to misdiagnosis.



Sclerosing cholangitis:


⇒ Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive disease of liver and gallbladder.
⇒ In this condition, bile ducts get inflamed and affected by scar tissues which finally could destroy the bile ducts. 
⇒ This duct is essential for the passage of bile.


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