Nutrients are the chemical compound which is fundamental for our survival and growth.
⇒ Macro-nutrient – Carbohydrates, Proteins & Fats
⇒ Micro-nutrient – Vitamins & Minerals
Fat is one of the essential macro-nutrients required for the human body.
⇔ Adipose tissue
⇔ Adipose tissue hormones
⇔ Visceral fat
⇔ Subcutaneous fat
⇔ Two types of fat ( Saturated-SFA & Unsaturated-UFA)
⇔ MUFA & PUFA
⇔ Importance of PUFA
⇔ Trans fat
Triglycerides are the main component of fat cells. These are made up of three individual fatty acids that are connected by glycerol.
(Tri)glyceride = (3)Fatty Acids + Glycerol
Fatty Acids = COOH (carboxylic acid) + long hydrocarbon chain
Glycerol = C3H8O3 (Also glycerine)
Fatty acids and glycerol are the smallest units of fat. They are present in the fat storage cell called Adipocytes (In adipose tissue) throughout the body.
⇒ Body fat as well as dietary fat present in the form of triglycerides.
⇒ Fat cells (adipocytes in adipose tissue) consist of triglycerides as their major parts. Also, it consists of a nucleus and cell membrane similar to all human cells.
⇒ Extra calories found during food intake are converted into triglycerides and are stored in fat cells.
⇒ Some triglyceride is stored in the fat cell or adipose tissue. Some of the triglycerides will be present in the blood for providing energy for muscle function and carried by lipoprotein (VLDL-Very Low-Density Lipoprotein).
THE HEALTHY RANGE OF TRIGLYCERIDE:
The range calculated in milligrams per deciliter.
Normal = Less than 150 mg/dL
Borderline = 150 to 199 mg/dL
Above 200 – 499 mg/dL as high, whereas above 500 mg/dL as Very high.
⇒ Adipose tissue is an essential endocrine gland made of loose connective tissue that consists of adipocytes cells.
⇒ Adipose tissue components are adipocytes, connective tissue matrix, nerve tissue, stromovascular cells, and immune cells.
⇒ Adipose tissue mainly located beneath the skin and it is also found around internal organs.
Subcutaneous fat: (Body fat)
⇒ These are adipose tissue, which is found in the subcutaneous layer of skin.
⇒ The subcutaneous layer is the deepest layer of skin which helps to connect dermis to bones and muscles with its special connecting tissue. (Epidermis is skin upper layer and dermis acts as a middle layer)
⇒ Body fat is present throughout the body and stores energy in the form of fat.
⇒ It helps in regulating temperature by acting as an insulator to protect from heat and cold.
⇒ It functions as a cushion to protect muscles and bones.
THE HEALTHY RANGE OF BODY FAT:
Men: 8-19 % Women: 21-33 %
⇒ These are adipose tissue, which is found within the abdominal cavity between internal organs. This fat helps to isolate each organ and also protects it by acting as a cushion.
⇒ It’s around internal organs such as the stomach, small intestines, large intestine, gall bladder, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands.
HEALTHY RANGE OF VISCERAL FAT:
The range is calculated between 1 – 59;
⇒ Healthy level = 1-12
⇒ Excessive level = 13-59
⇒ Obesity is nothing but more of body fat cells- adipocytes. Belly fat may consist of both visceral fat and subcutaneous fat.
⇒ Adipose tissue has to be in a balanced state, whether it is excess or lacks it can lead to serious health complications.
Endocrine gland: These are a collection of glands to produce and secrete hormones to regulating various functions such as metabolism, reproduction, growth, development, sleep, sexual functions, and mood swings.
Main Function of Adipose tissue:
⇒ Storage of energy
Adipose tissue Hormones:
Adipose tissue secretes many peptide hormones and steroid hormones.
Few Peptide hormones:
⇒ Leptin – Cell signaling hormone which plays major role in regulating the amount of food intake, weight gain, and appetite.
⇒ Cytokines – These are large groups of protein secreted by specific immune cells to regulate immunity, hematopoiesis(production of blood cells) and inflammation.
⇒ Adiponectin – protein hormone secreted into the bloodstream regulates the metabolic process, keeps track of oxidation of fatty acids and glucose regulation.
⇒ Adipokines – Helps to regulate neuroendocrine function, reproduction, cardiovascular function, glucose, and lipid metabolism.
⇒ Resistin, Adipsin, Acylation-stimulating hormone, Angiotensinogen, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)
Two types of fat:
⇒ Saturated fat
COOH + Hydrocarbon chain with single bond
⇒ Unsaturated fat ( 2 types)
COOH + Hydrocarbon chain with one or more double bond
MUFA: Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids
(COOH + Hydrocarbon chain with one double bond)
-> Omega 7
-> Omega 9
PUFA: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
(COOH + Hydrocarbon chain with 2 or more double bond)
-> Omega 3
-> Omega 6
-> Trans fat
⇒ Saturated fat is made up of glycerol and fatty acids. The human body cannot produce saturated fat by itself.
⇒ It is a type of fat in which fatty acids chains have single bonds of the carbon atom.
⇒ A saturated fatty acid has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atom attached to every carbon atom.
Ex: Oils such as palm and coconut, dried coconut, Fish oil, processed meat, whipped cream, cheese, animal fat, dark chocolate, nuts, and seeds.
Unsaturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature. They differ from saturated fats in their chemical structure which contains one or more double bonds.
UFA has two types:
MUFA contains only one double bond in its structure. The most common types of MUFA are Omega 7 and Omega 9.
PUFA contains two or more double bonds in their structure. The most essential types of PUFA are omega 3 and Omega 6. Omega 3 & 6 are considered as essential fats since they can’t be produced in the body.
Importance of PUFA (Omega 3 & Omega 6)
⇒ Improve blood cholesterol
⇒ Decrease the risk of heart disease
⇒ Helps in maintaining your cells
⇒ Prevents fatigue
⇒ Assist in focus and concentration
⇒ Control weight gain
⇒ Helps you to manage your different emotions
MUFA Ex: Olive oil, canola, peanut, sesame, safflower oils, avocados, peanut butter, many nuts, and seeds.
PUFA Ex: Soybean, corn, sunflower oil, ground flaxseed, fatty fish like salmon, herring, trout and mackerel, walnuts, sunflower seeds, tofu, soya beans.
Trans fatty acids:
⇒ It’s a type of unsaturated fatty acid. Trans fat can be both natural and artificial.
⇒ Naturally occurring Trans fat is present in some meat and dairy products.
⇒ Artificial Trans fat (Industries manufacture) is produced by a chemical process called HYDROGENATION.
⇒ HYDROGENATION – In which liquid fats (oils) are converted into solid fats.
⇒ The hidden amount of artificial trans fat is present in Doughnuts, cookies, crackers, muffins, pies, cakes and so many.
Saturated fat and trans fat are considered Unhealthy. Whereas, Unsaturated fat like Omega 3, omega 6 and omega 9 is healthy.